Energy conversion takes place in nearly all processes in nature and technology. The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another but can neither be created nor destroyed.
Fuel cells are a prominent example for energy conversion. In a fuel cell the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant is converted to electrical energy. The most prevalent fuel cell type is the PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. To optimize the transport of both gases to the catalyst a gas diffusion layer, such as the SIGRACET® range of gas diffusion materials from SGL Carbon, is required. The PEM type fuel cell is used for stationary and mobility applications. Combined Heat & Power (CHP) in residential buildings is an example for a stationary application. The use of fuel cells in passenger cars, trains or ferries are examples for zero emission mobile applications.
Also in many other processes energy is deliberately and intentionally converted, e.g. thermal energy. Here our thermally highly resistant specialty graphite applications are used, for example heat exchangers, reactors or quenchers.